Selected Publications

2015 and after:

Hicks, A., Cori, J.M., Jordan, A.S., Nicholas, C.L., Kubin, L., Semmler, J.G., Malhotra, A., McSharry, D.G.P. and Trinder, J.A. 2017. Mechanisms of the deep, slow-wave, sleep-related increase of upper airway muscle tone in healthy humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 122:1304-1312. (

Kubin, L. 2016. Neural control of the upper airway: Respiratory and state-dependent mechanisms. Compr. Physiol. 6:1801-1850. (

Kubin, L., Jordan, A.S., Nicholas, C.L., Cori, J.M., Semmler, J.G. and Trinder, J. 2015. Crossed motor innervation of the base of human tongue. J. Neurophysiol. 113: 3499-3510. (

Kubin, L. 2015. Orexinergic tone in cardiorespiratory regulation. In: “Orexin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects,” Sakurai, T., Pandi-Perumal, S.R., Monti, J.M., (Eds.), Springer, pp. 395-410. (

2010 – 2014:

Kubin, L. 2014. Sleep-wake control of the upper airway by noradrenergic neurons, with and without intermittent hypoxia. Progr. Brain Res. 209: 255-274. (

Rukhadze, I., Kalter, J., Stettner, G.M. and Kubin L. 2014. Lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats with surgically altered upper airway. Front. Neurol., 5 (Article 61): 1-14.

Volgin, D.V., Lu, J.W., Stettner, G.M., Mann, G.L., Ross, R.J., Morrison, A.R. and Kubin, L. 2014. Time- and behavioral state-dependent changes in posterior hypothalamic GABAA receptors contribute to the regulation of sleep. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86545. 

Laitman, B.M., Gajewski, N.D., Mann, G.L., Kubin, L., Morrison, A.R. and Ross, R.J. 2014. The α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin reduces REM sleep fragmentation and non-REM sleep arousals in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats. Progr. Neuropsychopharm. Biol. Psych. 49:7-15.  

Stettner, G.M., Kubin, L. and Volgin, D.V. 2013. Early postnatal alcohol exposure causes a partial loss of motoneurons in the ventral compartment of the hypoglossal nucleus in rats. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 52:87-94.  

Volgin, D.V., Stettner, G.M., Kubin, L. 2013. Circadian dependence of receptors that mediate wake-related excitatory drive to hypoglossal motoneurons. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 188:301-307.

Stettner, G.M., Rukhadze, I., Mann, G.L., Lei, Y. and Kubin, L. 2013. Respiratory modulation of lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 188: 308-317.  

Stettner, G.M., Lei, Y., Benincasa Herr, K. and Kubin, L. 2013. Evidence that adrenergic ventrolateral medullary cells are activated whereas precerebellar lateral reticular nucleus neurons are suppressed during REM sleep. PLoS ONE 8(4): e62410.  

Benincasa Herr, K., Stettner, G.M. and Kubin, L. 2013. Reduced c-Fos expression in medullary catecholaminergic neurons in rats 20 h after exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia. Am. J. Physiol. 304:R514-R522.  

Stettner, G.M. and Kubin, L. 2013. Antagonism of orexin receptors in the posterior hypothalamus reduces hypoglossal and cardiorespiratory excitation from the perifornical hypothalamus. J. Appl. Physiol. 114:119-130.  

Fenik, V.B., Marchenko, V., Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 2012. Inhibition of A5 neurons facilitates the occurrence of REM sleep-like episodes in urethane-anesthetized rats: a new role for noradrenergic A5 neurons? Front. Neurol. 3 (Article 119): 1-12. 

Fenik, V.B., Singletary, T., Branconi, J.L., Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 2012. Glucoregulatory consequences and cardiorespiratory parameters in rats exposed to chronic-intermittent hypoxia: Effects of the duration of exposure and losartan. Front. Neurol. 3 (Article 51):1-13.  

Stettner, G.M., Fenik, V.B. and Kubin, L. 2012. Effect of chronic-intermittent hypoxia on noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal motoneurons. J. Appl. Physiol. 112:305-312.  

Rukhadze, I., Kamani, H. and Kubin, L. 2011. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain. Arch. Ital. Biol. 149:499-515. 

Mody, P., Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2011. Rats subjected to chronic-intermittent hypoxia have increased density of noradrenergic terminals in the trigeminal sensory and motor nuclei. Neurosci. Lett. 505:176-179.  

Kubin, L. and Davies, R.O. 2011. Mechanisms of upper airway hypotonia. In: Sleep Apnea. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 2nd Edition. Pack, A.I., Ed., Informa Healthcare, St. Helier, Jersey, UK, pp. 82-127.  

Brandes, I.F., Stettner, G.M., Mörschel, M., Kubin, L. and Dutschmann, M. 2011. REM sleep-like episodes of motoneuronal depression and respiratory rate increase are triggered by pontine carbachol microinjections in in situ perfused rat brainstem preparation. Exp. Physiol. 96:548-555. []

Stettner, G.M., Kubin, L. and Volgin D.V. 2011. Antagonism of orexin 1 receptors eliminates motor hyperactivity and improves homing response acquisition in juvenile rats exposed to alcohol during early postnatal period. Behav. Brain Res. 221:324-328.  

Rukhadze, I., Fenik, V.B., Benincasa, K.E., Price, A. and Kubin, L. 2010. Cronic intermittent hypoxia alters density of aminergic terminals and receptors in the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 182:1321-1329.  

Before 2010:

Lu, J.W. and Kubin, L. 2009. Electromyographic activity at the base and tip of the tongue across sleep-wake states in rats. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 167:307-315.  

Fenik, V.B., Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2009. Antagonism of α1-adrenergic and serotonergic receptors in the hypoglossal motor nucleus does not prevent motoneuronal activation elicited from the posterior hypothalamus.  Neurosci. Lett. 462:80-84. 

Volgin, D.V., Malinowska, M. and Kubin, L. 2009. Dorsomedial pontine neurons with descending projections to the medullary reticular formation express orexin-1 and adrenergic α2A receptor mRNA. Neurosci. Lett. 459:115-118.  

Fenik, V.B. and Kubin, L. 2009. Differential localization of carbachol- and bicuculline-sensitive pontine sites for eliciting REM sleep-like effects in anesthetized rats. J. Sleep Res. 18:99-112.  

Volgin, D.V., Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2008. Hypoglossal premotor neurons of the intermediate medullary reticular region express cholinergic markers. J. Appl. Physiol. 105:1576-1584.  

Fenik, V.B., Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2008. Inhibition of pontine noradrenergic A7 cells reduces hypoglossal nerve activity. Neuroscience, 157:473-482.  

Kubin, L. 2008. Adventures and tribulations in the search for the mechanisms of the atonia of REM sleep. [Commentary on Brooks PL and Peever JH. Glycinergic and GABAA-mediated inhibition of somatic motoneurons does not mediate rapid eye movement sleep motor atonia. J. Neurosci. 2008; 28:3535-3545.] Sleep 31:1473-1476.  

Kubin, L. and Volgin, D.V. 2008. Developmental profiles of neurotransmitter receptors in respiratory motor nuclei. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 164:64-71.  

Lu, J.W., Fenik, V.B., Branconi, J.L., Mann, G.L., Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2007. Disinhibition of perifornical hypothalamic neurones activates noradrenergic neurones and blocks pontine carbachol-induced REM sleep-like episodes in rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 582:553-567.  

Volgin, D.V. and Kubin, L.  2007. Regionally selective effects of GABA on hypothalamic GABAA receptor mRNA in vitro. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 353:726-732. 

Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2007. Mesopontine cholinergic projections to the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Neurosci. Lett. 413:121-125. 

Rukhadze, I. and Kubin, L. 2007. Differential pontomedullary catecholaminergic projections to hypoglossal motor nucleus and viscerosensory nucleus of the solitary tract.  J. Chem. Neuroanat. 33:23-33.  

Kubin, L., Alheid, G.F., Zuperku, E.J. and McCrimmon, D.M. 2006. Central pathways of pulmonary and lower airway vagal afferents.  J. Appl. Physiol. 101:618-627. 

Orem, J. and Kubin, L.  2005.  Respiratory physiology: central neural control.  In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 4th Ed., Kryger, M.H., Roth, T. and Dement, W.C. Eds. Elsevier, 213-223. 

Fenik, V.B., Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 2005. REM sleep-like atonia of XII motoneurons is caused by loss of noradrenergic and serotonergic inputs.  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 172:1322-1330.

Lu, J.W., Mann, G.L., Ross, R.J., Morrison, A.R. and Kubin, L. 2005. Differential effect of sleep-wake states on lingual and dorsal neck muscle activity in rats.  Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 147:191-203.  

Kubin, L. and Fenik, V. 2004.  Pontine cholinergic mechanisms and their impact on respiratory regulation.  Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 143:235-249.  

Fenik, V., Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 2004. Combined antagonism of aminergic excitatory and amino acid inhibitory receptors in the XII nucleus abolishes REM sleep-like depression of hypoglossal motoneuronal activity.  Arch. Ital. Biol. 142:237-249.  

Volgin, D.V., Fay, R. and Kubin, L. 2003. Postnatal development of serotonin 1B, 2A and 2C receptors in brainstem motoneurons.  Eur. J. Neurosci. 17: 1179-1188.  

Fenik, V., Marchenko, V., Janssen, P., Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 2002. A5 cells are silenced when REM sleep-likesigns are elicited by pontine carbachol. J. Appl. Physiol. 93:1448-1456.  

Kubin, L. 2001. Carbachol models of REM sleep: recent developments and new directions.  Arch. Ital. Biol. 139:147-168.  

Volgin, D., Mackiewicz, M. and Kubin, L. 2001.  α1B receptors are the main postsynaptic mediators of adrenergic excitation in brainstem motoneurons, a single-cell RT-PCR study. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 22:157-166.  

Fay, R. and Kubin, L. 2000. Pontomedullary distribution of 5-HT2A receptor-like protein in the rat.  J. Comp. Neurol. 418:323-345.  

Okabe, S., Sanford, L.D., Veasey, S.C. and Kubin, L. 1998. Pontine injections of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME consolidate episodes of REM sleep in the rat.  Sleep Res. Online 1:41-48.

Okabe, S., Mackiewicz, M. and Kubin, L. 1997. Serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the hypoglossal motor nucleus.  Respir. Physiol. 110:151-160.  

Woch, G., Davies, R.O., Pack, A.I. and Kubin, L. 1996. Behaviour of raphe cells projecting to the dorsomedial medulla during carbachol-induced atonia in the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 490:745-758. []

Kubin, L., Kimura, H., Tojima, H., Davies, R.O. and Pack, A.I 1993.  Suppression of hypoglossal motoneurons during the carbachol-induced atonia of REM sleep is not caused by fast synaptic inhibition.  Brain Res. 611:300-312.  

Kubin, L., Tojima, H., Davies, R.O. and Pack, A.I. 1992. Serotonergic excitatory drive to hypoglossal motoneurons in the decerebrate cat.  Neurosci. Lett. 139:243-248. 

Kubin, L., Kimura, H. and Davies. R.O. 1991. The medullary projections of afferent bronchopulmonary C-fibres in the cat as shown by antidromic mapping. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 435:207-228. []

Bras, H., Cavallari, P., Jankowska, E. and Kubin, L. 1989. Morphology of midlumbar interneurons relaying information from group II muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord. J. Comp. Neurol. 290:1-15.

Davies, R.O. and Kubin, L. 1986. Projection of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors to the medulla of the cat; an antidromic mapping study. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 373:63-86. []

Merrill, E.G., Lipski, J., Kubin, L. and Fedorko, L. 1983. Origin of the expiratory inhibition of nucleus tractus solitarius inspiratory neurons. Brain Res. 263:43-50.

Kubin, L., Manzoni, D. and Pompeiano, O. 1981. Responses of lateral reticular neurons to convergent neck and macular vestibular inputs. J. Neurophysiol. 46:48-64.

Trzebski, A., Raczkowska, M. and Kubin, L. 1980. Carotid baroreceptor reflex in man, its modulation over the respiratory cycle. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. (Warsaw) 40:807-820.