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Related Terms: Androgen Dependent Cystinuria
Sample Types: Fresh EDTA blood or Cheek brushes/swabs
Aminoaciduria and stone formation only observed in intact male dogs. Age of onset of aminoaciduria ranges between 8 months and 2.5 years. First instances of clinical signs (due to stone formation) can range from 1 year to late in life (as late as 9 years observed to date).
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Hematuria, stranguria, urinary obstruction, cystine crystalluria and urolithiasis in intact males only. Females are asymptomatic.
Some affected dogs have been observed to block repeatedly, but there are no studies to determine the effect on lifespan.
Histological changes are largely dependent on the extent of blockage and crystal formation. These can range from thickened bladder wall with invasion of inflammatory cells to nephritis.